FAQ for Using Python with Posit (formerly RStudio) Connect


Use Cases for Python with Posit Connect

Posit Connect provides functionality to publish Python content to Posit Connect for teams and individuals who use both languages:

  • Data scientists who use a combination of R and Python
  • Posit users working together with Jupyter Notebook users

You can use Posit Connect along with the reticulate package to publish Jupyter Notebooks, Shiny apps, R Markdown documents, and Plumber APIs that use Python scripts and libraries.

For example, you can publish content to Posit Connect that uses Python for interactive data exploration and data loading (pandas), visualization (matplotlib, seaborn), natural language processing (spacy, gensim), and machine learning (pytorch, scikit-learn, statsmodels).

Common use cases with Python and Posit Connect include:

  • Push-button publishing of Jupyter Notebooks to Posit Connect
  • Building interactive Shiny applications and dashboards on top of existing Python code and libraries
  • Using mixed Python and R content in R Markdown documents and reports
  • Scheduling Python-based data processing / ETL scripts or model training jobs
  • Using Python libraries with R Markdown notebooks for interactive and exploratory analyses
  • Publishing Flask applications and APIs
  • Deploying Plumber APIs that execute Python scripts or use Python libraries when an API is queried


Configuring Python with Posit Connect

What are the requirements for using Python with Posit Connect?

Posit Connect (version 1.7.0 and higher) can be configured to point to one or more versions of Python on the server that will be used when Python content is published. Python support and the locations of the Python environments are specified in the Posit Connect configuration file.

Each Python installation is required to have the pip and venv Python packages installed. venv is used to create project-specific environments, and pip is used to install Python packages.

The recommended approach for installing Python is to build from source, but you can point to any version or distribution of Python that meets the version and package requirements.

For more details, refer to the Python section in the Posit Connect documentation.

The client machine that is publishing Python content should be using reticulate version 0.8.13 or newer.


Which versions of Python are compatible with Posit Connect?

The minimum version of Python supported in Posit Connect is 3.7.

The reticulate package is compatible with all versions of Python >= 2.7. Integration with NumPy is optional and requires NumPy >= 1.6.


Can I use multiple versions of Python with Posit Connect?

Yes, Posit Connect supports multiple installed versions of Python on the server.

Similar to the approach for installing multiple versions of R, the recommended approach for installing multiple versions of Python is to build and install Python from source.

When a user publishes a project that uses Python, Posit Connect will attempt to find a best match for the requested version of Python.

For more details, refer to the Python section in the RStudio Connect documentation.


Publishing Python Content to Posit Connect

How do I include Python code or scripts within an R application?

The reticulate package provides a comprehensive set of tools for interoperability between Python and R. Posit Connect supports the use of reticulate and will recreate both the R and Python packages in the environment on the Posit Connect server when a project is deployed.


Where can I find examples of using Python with RStudio Connect?

Examples of Shiny apps, R Markdown documents, and Plumber APIs with Python can be found on this examples page and in the python-examples repository on GitHub.


How can I configure reticulate to point to a specific Python environment?

The recommended approach for configuring reticulate for use with the RStudio IDE and publishing Python content to Posit Connect is to set the RETICULATE_PYTHON environment variable to point to the desired Python executable.

This approach is supported starting in reticulate 0.8.13 or newer versions.

For example, you can set the following in your .Renviron:


This allows you to remove any hard-coded references to Python environments from your application code and avoids the need to switch use_python or other configurations in reticulate between developing projects in RStudio and publishing projects to Posit Connect.

For more details, refer to the Python Version Configuration section in the reticulate documentation.


How does Posit Connect determine the Python packages that are used in my project?

When you publish a project that includes Python content, the RStudio IDE uses the rsconnect package as part of the standard push-button publishing process to generate a list of Python packages that are installed in the currently configured Python environment (including environments that use virtualenv or conda, assuming that all of the packages are available on PyPI and can be installed via pip).

The list of Python packages is included in the project bundle and sent to the Posit Connect server. The Python environment is then reconstructed on the server using venv and pip, and the details for the environment reconstruction process can be viewed in the deployment logs for a particular project.

The reticulate::py_config() function can be used to verify which Python executable and library paths are being used by the rsconnect package in the RStudio IDE to generate the list of Python packages.


Can I publish standalone Python applications such as Flask APIs to Posit Connect?

Yes. Python-based Flask applications can be published to RStudio Connect using the rsconnect-python package available on GitHub and PyPI.

The rsconnect-python package provides a CLI based workflow that enables publishing Flask applications from the command line or integration continuous integration workflows. The package requires an API key associated with an operational installation of Posit Connect is available.

This workflow provides a Python-only user the ability to create, publish, and update Flask applications running in RStudio Connect. Typical scenarios for Flask use include standalone web applications or REST-based HTTP APIs.

More information is available in the RStudio Connect Flask User Guide and Getting Started with Flask and RStudio Connect article.


Publishing Jupyter Notebooks to Posit Connect

How do I publish Jupyter Notebooks to Posit Connect?

The functionality to publish Jupyter Notebooks to Posit Connect is provided by a notebook extension.

Follow the steps in the rsconnect-jupyter documentation to install and configure Jupyter Notebook with the ability to publish to Posit Connect:

  • Install the rsconnect-jupyter package
  • Enable the rsconnect-jupyter notebook extension
  • Generate an API token from Posit Connect
  • Use push-button publishing to publish your Jupyter Notebooks to Posit Connect


Which languages / kernels can I use when publishing Jupyter Notebooks?

There are two options when publishing Jupyter Notebooks to Posit Connect:

  • Publish document with source code
  • Publish finished document only

These two options are similar to the publishing functionality of R Markdown documents in that the "finished document" option will only publish a static/rendered version of the Jupyter Notebook, whereas the "document with source code" will recreate the Python environment, execute the notebook, and publish the resulting notebook with output. Both options only include the notebook to be published; you can embed images in a Jupyter Notebook using base64 encoding, however, additional files cannot be published with the notebook.

Jupyter Notebooks that use the Python kernel can be published using either option. If you choose the option to publish the Jupyter Notebook with source code, then the Python environment will be recreated on the Posit Connect server, including all of the Python packages, and the Jupyter Notebook will be executed on the server.

Jupyter Notebooks that use languages or kernels other than the Python kernel can be published using the finished document only.

For more details, refer to the rsconnect-jupyter documentation.


Can I schedule and email published Jupyter Notebooks?

Yes, Jupyter Notebooks that use the Python kernel can be published as a "document with source code", which will recreate the Python environment on the Posit Connect server, including all of the Python packages.

These published Jupyter Notebooks can be optionally scheduled and emailed to users in Posit Connect, similar to the schedule and email functionality for R Markdown reports.


Troubleshooting Python with Posit Connect

If you encounter errors when installing Python on the Posit Connect server or publishing apps with Python content, refer to the support article on Troubleshooting Python with RStudio Connect.